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枸杞虫害之枸杞瘿螨

发布者: 杨站长 | 发布时间: 2016-4-25 13:02| 查看数: 2414| 评论数: 45|帖子模式

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枸杞瘿螨





拉丁名:Aceria macrodonis Keifer

科属:蛛形纲(Arachnida)蜱螨目(Acarina)瘿螨科(Eriophyidae)

危害植物:宁夏枸杞

危害部位:茎叶花果全株

被害状:变色畸形


分布与危害:





    枸杞瘿螨(Aceria macrodonis Keifer)属蛛形纲(Arachnida),蜱螨目(Acarina),瘿螨科(Eriophyidae)。主要分布于宁夏、内蒙古、甘肃、新疆、山西、陕西、青海等地的枸杞引种栽培区。此虫为常发害虫,枸杞瘿螨危害枸杞的叶片、花蕾、幼果、嫩茎、花瓣及花柄,花蕾被害后不能开花结果,叶面不平整,严重时整株树木长势衰弱,脱果落叶,造成减产,受害严重的叶片有虫瘿15-25个,严重影响了枸杞子的产量和质量。


形态特征:

成虫:体长约0.3mm,橙黄色,长圆锥形,全身略向下弯曲作弓形,前端较粗,有足2对,这是与其他科螨类不同之处,故又名四足螨科。头胸宽短,向前突出,其旁有下颚须l对,由3节组成。足5节,末端有1羽状爪。腹部有环纹约53个,形成狭长环节,背面的环节与腹面的环节是一致的,连接成身体的一环,这是此属特点(其他属背环1个,在腹面分为数个小环);腹部背面前端有背刚毛l对,侧面有侧刚毛l对,腹面有腹刚毛3对,尾端有吸附器及刚毛1对,此对刚毛较其他刚毛长,其内方还有附毛l对。

卵:直径3.9微米,球形,浅白色透明。

幼虫:若螨形如成螨,只是体长较成螨短,惟甚短,中部宽,后部短小,前端有4足及口器如花托,浅白色至浅黄色,半透明。

若虫:较幼虫长,较成虫短,形状已接近成虫。






发生规律:


以老熟雌成虫在冬芽的鳞片内或枝干皮缝中越冬,4月中、下旬枸杞芽苞开放时,越冬成螨即从越冬场所迁移到新展嫩叶上找到合适位置,在叶片反面剌伤表皮吮吸汁液,损毁组织,使之渐呈凹陷,以后表面愈合,成虫便钻入叶肉组织,取食并刺激叶肉组织使其不正常生长,之后便在其中产卵,卵孵化后幼螨便在其内取食,直到成螨时才钻出虫瘿,此时在叶的正面隆起如一痣,痣由绿色转赤褐渐变紫色,5月中下旬扩散至新梢危害,8月中下旬转移至秋梢危害,11月中旬进入越冬期。






防治方法:


农业防治:早春和晚秋清理修剪下来的残、枯、病、虫枝条连同园地周围的枯草落叶,集中于园外烧毁消灭虫源。每年春季统一清园,可大量减少越冬虫口基数。


物理防治:发现有大量虫瘿的枝叶应及时摘除,集中销毁,以免瘿螨扩散危害其它植株。早春和晚秋喷施仿生胶,可以有效阻止枸杞瘿螨迁移越冬,从而降低越冬虫口基数。


化学防治:确定防治时期及选择合适农药是防治的关键,在成螨越冬前及越冬后出瘿成螨大量出现时喷药防治,掌握当地出瘿成螨外露期或出蜇成螨活动期,可以使用1.8%阿维菌素3000倍或20%达螨酮750倍防治枸杞瘿螨。


生物防治:枸杞瘿螨姬小蜂为枸杞瘿螨的优势天敌,应注意该天敌的保护与应用。




【药用植物病虫害数据库©药用植物研究所版权所有 未经许可,不得转载】
转载自:药用植物病虫害数据库www.pests.com.cn

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